We, the people of the world, are living in the 21st century where life becomes easy, especially the communication system of the world is now very easy, just need to press on the screen and you will get the voice or live video of your desire person. But can we imagine the situation of 40 years ago? 40 years ago, the communication system wasn’t good rather it was very difficult, it was impossible to think that man can contact each other’s instantly just pressing switch, it would be the day dream at that time. But now this is not only possible but also touches the almost highest limit. All this happen due to the invention of cellular phone. It changes the world, also the story of the world and adds a new dimension in our communication life where we can enjoy the best facilities of communication.
Mobile phone is not a word rather it is the meaning of life where the man can enjoy the all kinds of freedom, freedom of communication, freedom of learning. A man life isn’t complete without mobile phone in now a day, every day, every hour, and every second we take the help of mobile phone. Our life has become depended on mobile phone; it likes a part and parcel of our life. So in one sense, mobile phone is the blood of human being and except blood a human being is valueless. Nobody can deny the fact; nobody can avoid the necessity of a mobile phone.
So the invention of the cellular phone makes the world a global village where all the people are interconnected with each other like a village because in a village all the people of this village know what happens on the opposite side of the village like that we know the situation of the world instantly by using the mobile phone. We can do a lot of work with that mobile phone in our daily life where the importance of mobile phone isn’t little. It plays a vital role to change the world, can give us random access to the internet world which the world is called the Aladin Lamp.
The History of the Mobile Phone
Mobile phone wasn’t invented over a night rather it was invented step by step and was run by various scientists along with companies. We can still remember the day when the first mobile phone of the world was introduced, on April 3, 1973; Martin Cooper was made a mobile call who was a senior engineer at Motorola. But before this, many scientists were tried and they were succeeding gradually. So now we can remember the first effort of the German Military who was tried to invent such a machine which can deliver messages as soon possible to the other side as Germany was involved in World War 1.
Radio-based Cell Phones
German military, during the First World War, was trying to make wireless phone which they tested on the military trains that was running between Berlin and Boston. German military felt the importance of cell phones due to transfer messages quickly. In next, they also tested in 1924 between Berlin and Hamburg. But in 1939 the Second World War broke out and military forces again started their test in order to success in war. At last in 1940, a radio based receivers was invented which helped to exchange the news in battlefields around the world.
This invention was helped in next time to make the car phones at Bell Labs which system helped the users to receive the call from inside. Finally Bell Labs introduced mobile phone service on June 17, 1946 but it was on vehicles in St. Louis, Missouri. But a few weeks later, another company named AT &T joined with Bell Labs and invented a Mobile Telephone Service that can coverage little areas and a few numbers were able to connect. This invention would help the man to invented cell Phones and many of us were inspired by this invention and also many people started to believe that wireless phones would be invented in future.
The First Cell Phone of Russia
The conflict between Russia and United States are well-known to us, sometime it helped the world, sometime created disaster. As it was the time of Cold War, USSR was the next nation who tried to invent mobile phones. Leonid Kupriyanovich, a Soviet inventor, invented several mobile phones between 1957 and 1961 that surprisingly looked like today’s mobile phone. Leonid developed a mobile phone which was 70 grams and easily could fit in our hand which had many similarities with today’s phones. So the USSR took a decision that they could develop the plan and named the phone “Altai” and made it in order to use in cars.
Mobile Telephone Service of AT & T’s
AT & T tries to improve their previous system so that they can continue researches. As a result, AT & T made a system which was known as Mobile Telephone Service in 1949. This invention was remarked as a continuous journey towards the final aim that means the digital mobile phone which is now used by us. But this Mobile Telephone Service was only receivable in St. Louis like previous but this time it was increased its area which was 100 towns.
This developed system become popular among the people, a statistics provided, almost 5000 users made calls each week and the number of calls was approximately 30,000. As it was known as a vehicle phone, there needed to install about 36 kg of equipment in order to use it in car. There were some limitations also but it helped to improve the communication system a lot. The call cost was very expensive that approximately 15 USD per month, in today’s dollars it may nearly $200 USD per month.
The Post Office Radiophone Service at Manchester, UK
By following the AT & T mobile phone service, a similar system was launched in the UK. This system was well known as a Post Office Radiophone Service and it was available for Manchester in 1959. This system needed an operator who connect the users to any subscriber all of Great Britain. In next, the great city London introduced Post Office Radiophone Service in 1965 and it was spread all the major city of UK in 1972.
Improved Mobile Telephone Service (IMTS) Launched by AT & T
Actually AT & T was continuously trying to improve the system at that time so theirs continuous effort was brought an updated version of Mobile Telephone Service. After invented this updated version, the people of the world were able to enjoy the original Mobile Telephone Service.
At first, they pointed out their problem on the previous version and tried to improve, also added radio channels. This updated version came with some features like the improved customer dialing, didn’t need to call the operator in order to set up each call and also not to carry 36 kg equipment by the subscriber.
Radio Common Carrier
At that time all the developed nations were tried to improve the previous version, like that. American telephone companies launched a system known as Radio Common Carrier (RCC) in order to compete with the AT & T but the frequencies were the same with IMTS frequencies. This American company tried to defeat the AT & T so they were continuing their research until the 1980s, and able to invent a system caked AMPS which was cell-based but not get popular.
European Mobile Radio Networks
At last, Europe also joined this competition in order to make them developed nation. They improved a series of mobile networks but all the networks could be used in West Germany, A-Netz networks was introduced by them in 1952 and in later B-Netz network in 1972.
Norway, another European country, came to light due to their invention which was called OLT that could manually connected calls to each others.
Till now, all the networks featured with radio based, not the genuine cellular technology. In the middle of the 20th century, researches were coming in point and they noticed a ray of hope which helped them to invent cellular networks and it was spread over the America.
First Cellular Network
The engineers of Bell Labs were getting a trick to put cell service in vehicles, they also confirmed about the cells of hexagonal which was very effect full for vehicles.
But before 1960s, the researchers couldn’t think about the frequency reuse and handoff technology which could use in modern cellular networks.
The First Mobile Telephone Call in 1973
The dream which was a day dream once, come to reality on April 3, 1973. This day is the part of the history only to make a mobile telephone call. Though the cell phone was first renounce before 10 years ago, the first mobile telephone call was made in 1973 by the famous Motorola’s engineer and researcher who called to Dr. Joel Engel of Bell Labs.
The name of the mobile phone was DynaTAC mobile which was 1.1kg in weight and 23cm long. From this call, researcher were fell the necessity of smaller phone which could be based on wireless communications technology, and this would be caught the market.
1G Cellular Networks
The word “1G” means first automated analog cellular networks around the world. Actually 1G idea was first introduced in Tokyo in 1979 and later it was spread in whole Japan in 1981. In the same year, some Europeans countries like Sweden, Norway, Finland and Denmark also grabbed the 1G.
But 1G was first introduced in America after two years of invention, and in North America they called Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS).
This 1G network had many troubles that means not worked properly; especially there was a security problem, as it wasn’t encrypted system.
That time people didn’t aware about the security issue so it didn’t matter and the first cell phone DynaTAC mobile released based on 1G network on March 6, 1983. The people of that time took opportunity and made call across the nation.
The First Mobile Phone Named DynaTAC
Motorola launched the first cell phone named DynaTAC on March 6, 1983 and yet the cost was $3995, it was grabbed the market.
DynaTAC’s battery life was very little; lasting only 30 minutes but with a view to inventing Motorola exhausted $100 million and had invested 10 years in order to develop the device.
Although the price was high, low battery, heavy weight, the DynaTAC mobile phone became successful. In later, the old AMPS networks were removed and Digital AMPS (D-AMPS) came to the light in 1990. But in 2008 all the old AMPS service was close over North America and it would be farewell of an era.
2G Cellular Networks
The 2G networks came to light in the 1990s, often called second generation of mobile devices. This time Europe and America became the competitor of each other in networks world. GSM technology was developed by Europe and America forwarded CDMA.
There had common features of these two; both technologies used digital transmission technologies in lieu of analog. The digital transmission offered better security and faster networking.
The most important feature of 2G was the SMS option that means 2G networks supported first time the SMS option and the world’s first SMS was sent in Finland in 1993.
The first smartphone: IBM Simon
It is still the question that which was the first smartphone, probably IBM Simon was the first world’s smartphone which was released in 1993. The comparison between the IBM Simon and today’s smartphone is the silliest thing rather we can call IBM Simon was pretty stupid. IBM Simon came with a calendar, clock, address book, notepad, PDA, email service, QWERTY keyboard and touch screen. Besides these, it had also apps!
This smartphone was sold across the United States; it was sold 50000 units within August 1994 to February 1995.
3G Cellular Networks
2G networks provided us the cellular phone but now we need mobile phone in daily activates. Long before, making call was enough but now we wanted to browse internet at faster and faster speeds.
So 2G networks turned into backdated service and we were looking for 3G and at last, 3G started in May 2001 in Tokyo.
In 3G networks, we could transfer data faster speeds (2 mbit/s data rates), this technology also provided media streaming by using mobile networks. It was opened the door where can support online video and music streaming.
A statistics provide, there 295 million 3G users around the world, it would be impressive but it is the number of only 9% of the total worldwide number of mobile users.
4G, the Introducer of Native IP networks
The main difference between the 3G and 4G is the data optimization; it is 10 times faster than 3G technologies. In 4G, the WiMAX standard and the more popular LTE standard were included.
Now we are clear, about how the mobile phone comes in today’s model. It was a long journey since 1924 but still, we are in a journey because we are always looking for something new from the previous.